What is gynaecology?
Gynaecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study of female sexual organs, in particular, the prevention and treatment of pathologies of the genital apparatus of women. Also included are reproductive issues and assisted fertilization.
What is treated by gynaecologists?
- The irregularity of the menstrual cycle both for rhythm (delays or advances) and for pain or quantity, with the risk of excessive blood loss and therefore of anaemia
- Vaginal bacteriological infections
- Sexually transmitted diseases with consequent cervical pathologies, especially of the viral type
- Benign formations such as fibroids or myomas or uterine polyps
- Difficulty in conception (sterility) with all the problems related to assisted fertilization
- Difficulty in completing a pregnancy and repeated miscarriages
- Birth regulation by contraception or other natural methods
- Urinary incontinence
- Menopausal syndrome with persistent disorders affecting the various systems, such as hot flashes, weight gain, mood changes, difficulty in sexual relations, bone ache
- Malignant tumours of the uterus, of the ovaries (very insidious because they can often be diagnosed only at an advanced stage) and of the breast
- Sexuality with situations of vaginismus
What is a Gynecological examination?
The Gynecological examination consists of the evaluation of the female genital apparatus (external and internal genitals).
During the Gynecological examination, the patient sits on the Gynecological table with her legs spread apart. The doctor performs the visual exploration of the vulva and introduces into the vagina a small disposable plastic retractor, which allows to view the cervix and perform the Pap test.
Once the retractor is removed, the vaginal exploration proceeds: the doctor, through a finger in the vagina, evaluates the characteristics of the uterus and the ovaries.
The Gynecological examination can be completed by an ultrasound, to assess the presence or suspicion of diseases such as fibroids, endometrial polyps or ovarian cysts.
The visit and the ultrasound are not painful.
What is the purpose of the visit?
The Gynecological examination serves to evaluate the normal state of the female genital apparatus and to exclude the presence of pathologies.
It is useful to periodically undergo a Gynecological examination and Pap test (preferably every 1 or 2 years). Early diagnosis of diseases such as uterine cancer, fibroids or endometriosis improves the possibility of treatment.
Treatment of menopause with hormone replacement therapy
The menopause is defined as the cessation of menstrual cycles due to exhaustion of the ovary. It can occur spontaneously, as often happens or more rarely by chemotherapy. It can be accompanied by Gynecological problems of varying intensity, with ways that are always different from woman to woman. The average age of menopause is around 49 years with a variation between 45 and 53 years. If menopause occurs before the age of 40, it is called early menopause.
Menopause has far-reaching effects. Menopause increases the speed of bone loss. The lack of estrogens affects the urinary tract causing loss of lubrication, elasticity, and tone. This exposes the woman to the recurrent bladder and urethral infections. In predisposed women, the risk of pelvic floor prolapse increases considerably.
It has been thought that the administration, starting from the beginning of menopause, of hormones that replace those that the ovaries are no longer able to produce, could reduce the severity of the problems mentioned, or, at least, delay their appearance.
Today, many women take hormone replacement therapy with estrogens and progestins in tablets, patches or cutaneous gels, for periods varying from several months to many years.
Women who experience severe problems at the beginning of the menopause that can significantly worsen their quality of life, their human relationships and sexual life with their partner, should consider starting a hormone replacement therapy which is, without doubt, effective in bringing about a considerable improvement in their lives.
In women who decide to follow it, in addition to their immediate effects, HRT will produce long-term benefits on bone mass, preventing osteoporosis and fractures.
There are excellent treatment options for Gynecological problems in India. The following are some of the best speciality Gynecological hospitals in the country or multi-speciality hospitals with superb Gynecological departments
- Fortis La Femme, Delhi
- Max Smart Super Specialty Hospital, Delhi NCR
- Nanavati Hospital, Mumbai
- MaxCure Suyosha Woman and Child Hospital, Hyderabad
- Fortis Hospital, Kolkata
These top Gynecological hospitals provide absolutely world-class care to every patient and are equipped with the latest and best medical equipment and doctors.